Civil Engineering Dictionary Terms : F

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Sr.TermDefinition
1Factor Of SafetyThe stress at which failure is expected, divided by the design stress (maximum permissible stress).
2FalseworkSupport for concrete formwork or for an arch during construction.
3FatigueThe lowering of the breaking-load of a member by repeated reversals of stress so that the member fails at a much lower stress than it can withstand under static loading.
4FaultingThe difference in elevation of two adjacent concrete slabs at a joint, primarily caused by the traffic-induced movement of base material particles from under one joint edge to under the adjacent joint edge.
5FillEarthwork in embankment or backfilling.
6Fillet3 to 6 inches wide shamfer for column to add beauty and strength by avoiding sharp angels.
7Fillet WeldA weld of roughly triangular cross-section between two pieces at right angles.
8Fine Aggregate(1) Sand or grit for concrete which passes the No. 4 sieve (4.76 mm) and retained in the No. 200 sieve (74 micron or 0.074 mm). (2) Sand or grit for bituminous road-making which passes a sieve of 3 mm square opening.
9Fixed CostsAny necessary labor, material and equipment costs, directly expended on the item or items under consideration which remain constant regardless of the quantity of the work done.
10FlakingPeeling off of the coating.
11Flexible PavementAn asphaltic pavement structure having sufficiently low bending resistance to maintain intimate contact with the underlying structure, yet having the required stability furnished by aggregate interlock, internal friction between particles and cohesion to support traffic.
12FlexureWord meaning bending.
13FlumeA wooden, steel or concrete open channel to carry or measure water flows.
14Fly-AshThe ash which goes to the chimney from pulverized coal and is caught in the fluegas dust extractors. It is used as pozzolan or as an admixture to cement.
15ForceThat which tends to accelerate a body or change its movement (i.g., the weight of a body is a force which tends to move it downwards).
16Formation LevelThe surface level or elevation of the ground surface after all digging and filling, but before concreting.
17FormworkThe wood molds used to hold concrete during the placement and curing processes.
18Foundation FailureFoundations of buildings can fail in one of two ways, first by differential settlement, secondly by shear failure of the soil.
19FreewayA divided arterial highway with full control of access.
20Frictional SoilA clean silt, sand or gravel that is a soil whose shearing strength is mainly decided by the friction between particles. In Coulomb's equation, sand shear strength is given by the statement S = P tan O, since sand has no cohesion.
21Frontage RoadA local street or road auxiliary to, and located on the side of an arterial highway for service to an abutting property and adjacent areas, and for control of access.
22FrostWeather during which dew is deposited as ice. The danger to construction caused by frost is that water expands by about 9% of its volume when it freezes. Therefore concrete or mortar which have not set and contain free water are disintegrated by it.
23Fusion WeldingThe welding of metals or plastics by any method which involves melting of the edges of the parts to be joined without pressure. Usually a filler rod provides the weld metal.

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